The abovementioned marginal prevention costs at midpoint level can be combined to ‘endpoints’ in three groups, plus global warming as a separate group:
– eco-costs of human health = the sum of carcinogens, summer smog, fine dust
– eco-costs of ecosystems = the sum of acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity
– eco-costs of resource scarcity = the sum of abiotic depletion (scarcity of metals, REE, and energy carriers), land-use, water, and land-fill
– eco-costs of global warming = the sum of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (the GWP 100 table)
– total eco-costs = the sum of human health, ecosystems, resource depletion and global warming
Since the endpoints have the same monetary unit (e.g. euro, dollar), they are added up to the total eco-costs without applying a ‘subjective’ weighting system. This is an advantage of the eco-costs system (see also ISO 14044 section 220.127.116.11 and 4.4.5). So called ‘double counting’ (ISO 14044 section 18.104.22.168.3) is avoided in the eco-costs system.
The eco-costs of global warming (also called eco-costs of CO2) can be used as an indicator for the carbon footprint. The eco-costs of resource depletion can be regarded as an indicator for ‘circularity’ in the theory