highly on the functional unit, e.g. the driving range, and the place and time of loading (Olinda et al. 2020).
Nuclear power is regarded as unsustainable in the eco-costs model, because of the risk of sabotage, terrorism, war, the risk of nuclear proliferation, and the risk of the waste storage. So, it cannot be ignored in LCA. Nuclear power is calculated by the use of nuclear fuels (e.g. uranium) on the bases of MJ/kg thermal. The calculation pathway in the 2022 eco-costs model is that nuclear power is abandoned by replacing it by fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) on the short term, and from there replace that by sustainable energy (e.g. take for CO2 emissions of the fossil power plants 0.116 €/kg CO2). Such a calculation route results in eco-costs of 3221 €/kg uranium of 500 GJ/kg for the ENTSO-e mix (2016) of 4.3% oil, 46.1 % gas and 49.6% coal.
Assumption are: average efficiency nuclear 33%, oil (44 MJ/kg) 39%, gas (42 MJ/kg) 45%, coal (25 MJ/kg) 35%. It results in 9615 kg oil/kg U, 8730 kg gas/kg U and 18857 kg coal/kg U. CO2 emissions are for oil, gas and coal respectively: 30192, 24008, and 31058 (kg CO2/ kg U.
Multiplying with 0.123 euro/kg CO2 (2023) results in 3712, 2952, and 3819 (euro/kg U) for respectively oil, gas, and coal. The eco-costs of 3414 €/kg uranium of 500 GJ/kgis counted as a separate midpoint.