not much more than 45%. For the other 55% we must take energy storage into account (e.g. 15% – 25% energy losses for pumping storage, or 5 – 15% for local Lithium batteries) . For more complex situations, see (Olinda et al. 2021) .
5. The Hydrogen industry will probably also introduce a certification system, to distinguish between grey, blue, and green Hydrogen. The market characteristics similar to PPA, so it is likely that the RECs and GOs will be bundled with the physical delivery
6. A bit of a chaos is to be expected in the near future with regards to CO2 certificates. since all kind of CO2 offsets are sold with a certificate. Offsets, however, are not accepted in LCA, since LCA is based on physical mass and energy balances. Therefor, financial and administrative transactions (like CO2 emission allowances and CO2 offsets) without a direct physical link to the mass and energy balance of the project chain, are not part of LCA.