perspectives to support eco-efficiency (it supports the first part of the eco-efficiency definition of the WBCSD, as given under the tab “general”).
Note that this modern management philosophy is much more than just “adding services” to existing products. It is about carefully improving the quality of products and services (as perceived by the customer!) by eliminating the “non value added” energy, materials and work.
A fact is that these modern management techniques not always lead to better eco-efficiency (e.g. the use of pesticides in agriculture results in a better value/costs ratio but not in a better level of environmental protection). That is why the aforementioned definition of eco-efficiency of the WBCSD adds: “….while progressively reducing ecological impacts …..”.
For this reason, the eco-costs are indispensable for companies which aim at good governance.
Literature: see under tab references 2.0, 2.5 and 2.8.