(c) Manufacturers who make EPDs try to keep the eco-score as low as possible, e.g. by taking short transport distances in their upstream scenarios.
Note 3. Calculation method A gives a more accurate, and slightly higher, result for EDPs that have been made before 2020, since the eco-costs contain more, impact categories than specified in the old EN 15804:2012, like fine dust, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity, land-use, and water stress. EPDs after 2020 should have been made according to EN 15804:2012+A2:2019, and have the additional indicators, however, still a full match with eco-costs is not possible, because of different midpoint tables for those impact categories.
Note 4. In many EPDs for metal products, the recycling credit (block D) is also given. As such these data cannot be used in isolation, since the amount of virgin material is not specified. However the sum of A1+A2+A3 + D (excluding resource depletion) gives a good estimate of eco-costs for a 100% C2C solution in the circular economy.