always starts with the subsystems
(1) materials from production (mining), and
(2) materials from recycling (starting from the stock of waste materials).
The calculation always stops with the subsystems
(3) separation until the waste material stocks for recycling, and
(4) separation with End of Life operations like land fill, incineration, production of energy and/or heat.
Note 1. The benefit of recycling is determined by the comparison of two systems: one with 0% recycling and one with 100% recycling. See under webpage recycling.
Note 2. The boundary limit of the system is the stock of waste materials for recycling. The model of the EVR does not allocate eco-costs over this boundary (so-called cascading), since it makes calculation systems complex, and it doesn’t serve any purpose. The issue of grades (=quality) of materials is also kept out of the eco-costs system: grades are dealt with in the economic side of the EVR. See also under webpage allocation.
negative eco-costs (since it