The rather complex issue of “allocation” in Product-Service Systems and in the End of Life phase, has been resolved in a practical and consistent way (where the existing LCA methodology failed until now to provide sufficient practical answers). This makes the system suitable for Cradle to Cradle calculations.
Furthermore the model comprises a system for modelling the issue of land-use, to be able to facilitate decisions with regard to spatial planning.
The theoretical basis of the model has been published in the Int. J. of LCA and some subsequent publications in J. of Cleaner Production , J. of Sustainable Product Design, Int. J. of Ecodynamics, Sustainability (MDPI), and Energy (MDPI). Text books are available for students (publisher: DAP, Delft, The Netherlands).