This 14 m3 per 10000 m2, combined with the density of the wood species, and combined with the biodiversity factor of the specific region, results in the eco-costs of illegal logging.
Example of Teak: (1) density at MC 12% is 665 kg/m3 (2) yield 14m3 per 10000 m2 (3) resulting in 1.07 m2/kg (4) biodiversity factor of Thailand is 0.625, so the eco-costs of land-use change is 1.07 x 0.625 x 6 = 4.02 euro/kg. Note that 6 is the eco-costs of 1 m2 at Δ biodiversity factor = 1.
Issue 3. the eco-burden of forest management
It appears in practice that the eco-costs of forest management is negligible, compared to the eco-costs of the rest of the product chain (less than 2%)
Issue 4. logging, four sides sawing and drying
The main processes are logging, ‘four sides sawing’ and kiln drying to 10 – 12% DM (dry matter). See Fig. 6.1a. All these activities are governed by energy consumption, in practice mainly diesel , although there are also examples of using the wood waste as energy source. Kiln drying requires the most energy, sawing the least (Druzhinina et al. 2012). These are also the