less than 10% of the municipal waste, being the EU target in 2035. These countries are AT, BE, DE, DK, FI, LU, NL, and SE, see Fig 2.3a. The basic approach in these countries is that the costs of landfill must be higher than the costs of recycling, composting and incineration, so that landfill is not an attractive option in waste management.
It follows the general approach that the main prevention measures of landfill are recycling, composting, and incineration, and that the prevention costs of the last, most expensive, measure to reach the target is the eco-costs of landfill. The eco-costs of landfill is determined by the level of the gate fee for land-fill under the condition that the prevention measures are preferred, as explained in (Vogtlander et al. 2001; section 4.1 and 5.1). In 2012 the “revealed preference” in terms of the required gate fee for landfill was calculated for the 8 ‘best in class’ countries in Europe (Watkins et al. 2012), leading to the aforementioned 0.123 euro/kg.
Note 1. The eco-costs of landfill is calculated for non-toxic waste, since toxic waste is not allowed as landfill within the EU and many other countries.