determined by the price of refrigerant HFO-1234yf in cooling systems.
These eco-costs are in practice negligible in comparison with the much eco-costs of the same substances in the global warming characterisation tables. Moreover, the classical CFCs are forbidden for any applications in Europe and the US. So the eco-costs of ozone layer depletion are set to zero.
Plastic soup in the ocean
The issue of the ‘plastic soup’ is dealt with in the midpoint ‘use of energy carriers’ (embedded in products). In the calculation of the marginal prevention costs (i.e. the eco-costs), the price of feedstock for plastics is based on the substitution of oil&gas by ‘second generation’ oil from biomass (pyrolysis of agricultural waste, wood harvesting waste, or algae), and producing bio-degradable plastics from it. By this substitution, the increase of plastic soup is stopped. However, the problem of the plastic soup that exists already is not resolved by this prevention measure.
For a further description on how to calculate this prevention measure, see tab “eco-costs of materials scarcity” under the heading “use of energy carriers” (embedded in products).