highly on the functional unit, e.g. the driving range, and the place and time of loading (Olinda et al. 2020).
Nuclear power is regarded as unsustainable in the eco-costs model. However, it is necessary to incorporate it in LCA, especially in electricity where it cannot be ignored. Nuclear power is calculated by the use of nuclear fuels (e.g. uranium) on the bases of MJ/kg thermal. The calculation pathway in the eco-costs model is that nuclear power is abandoned by replacing it by fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), and from there mitigate the extra CO2 emissions of the fossil power plants by offshore windfarms at 0.116 €/kg CO2. Such a calculation route results in eco-costs of 3221 €/kg uranium of 500 GJ/kg for the ENTSO-e mix (2016) of 4.3% oil, 46.1 % gas and 49.6% coal.
Assumption are: average efficiency nuclear 33%, oil (44 MJ/kg) 39%, gas (42 MJ/kg) 45%, coal (25 MJ/kg) 35%. It results in 9615 kg oil/kg U, 8730 kg gas/kg U and 18857 kg coal/kg U. The CO2 emissions are then for oil, gas and coal respectively: 30192, 24008, and 31058 (kg CO2/ kg U.
Multiplying with 0.116 euro/kg CO2 results in 3502, 2785, and 3603 (euro/kg U) for respectively oil, gas, and coal. The eco-costs of uranium is counted under “eco-costs of use of energy carriers”,